After an investigation of the role of Jerusalem in the Psalms and in the book of Chronicles by Seybold and Beentjes, Zeév Safrai and Albert Baumgarten sketch the Jerusalem elite of the first centuries from a sociological perspective. Joshua Schwartz deals with the archaeological evidence of the Temple Mount in relation to Rabbinical testimonies. Shmuel Safrai describes the extensive Rabbinical; legislation on the temple, which paradoxically, was fixed in a time when the temple lay in ruins. The Qumran sect rejected the Temple service in Jerusalem, but, according to Hanan Eshel and Larry Schiffman, the holy city and temple is a cornerstone of Qumran theology. Acccording to Daniel Schwartz, Hellenistic Jews had a more ambivalent attitude towards the temple, because of political tensions with the Romans. Form a Christian perspective, Bart Koet illuminates Paul’s striking link with Jerusalem as a Nazirite. The patristic scholar Parmentier examines the unrest that the emperor Julian’s plans to rebuild the temple caused among Christians. The emperor Justinian tried to become a second king Solomon, Avitzur argues, in building the huge Nea church in Jerusalem’s centre. With Bernard of Clairvaux we enter the period of the Crusaethe Crusades. Peter Raeds demonstrates how Bernard of Clairvaux considered the earthly Jerusalem as something for lay people; monks do not need this circuitous route. Yvonne Friedman.shows how the heavenly and earthly Jerusalem are fully blended in the Crusader’s experience.